Kate Sturm McCall Rotan of Waco was the first TFWC president and earned the sobriquet "the Mother of the Texas Federation." Other influential founders and early leaders included Anna J. H. Pennybacker, Mary P. Y. Terrell, and Sophie Hertzberg. The first constitution provided for an elected executive board, a president, six vice presidents, recording and corresponding secretaries, a treasurer, and three additional members. The state legislature granted the TFWC its first charter in 1914. The governing structure of the TFWC grew as interests and involvements increased. Standing committees to encourage work in education, household economics, music, art, civic improvement, club extension, parks and playgrounds, conservation, fire prevention, rural life, and public health, to mention a few, were added before the federation celebrated its twentieth anniversary.

The federation grew rapidly, and in 1901 the state's 132 member clubs were organized into five intrastate districts. Membership may have peaked in 1941, when the federation had 60,000 members, 1,200 clubs, and eight districts. In 1926 junior clubs were started. In 1932 the cornerstone was laid for the permanent headquarters in Austin. The two-story, red brick building of Southern Colonial architecture cost $157,000. For the previous ten years headquarters had been located at the clubhouse of the Fort Worth Woman's Club. Two book-length histories, as well as numerous pamphlets, have been published by the federation. In 1923 publication of Texas Federation News began; in 1948 it became the Texas Clubwoman, a bimonthly publication.